GEnie Spaceport library files written by J E D Cline

Table of Contents

Wide-view space concepts in general
Space station construction concepts
Anchored tether space elevators
Kinetically-supported space transportation structure systems
(And many more files to be added)

Background and introduction:

Late in 1988 a new way opened up that looked like I could use to communicate what I believed were potentially useful concepts related to space access and utilization, through my membership in the National Space Society (formerly the L5 Society membership) an opportunity to contribute through the GEnie Spaceport forum library (later re-named as the Space & Science Software Library. This was accessed through a public computer network called GEnie, before the present-day internet became available to the average citizen.  (Other similar individual nationwide public networks besides GEnie were Compuserve and AOL, for example; unfortunately GEnie was not incorporated into the internet when it was formed.) Connecting my already obsolete Adam Coleco computer through the phone line using my secondhand 300 baud modem, I was able to compose and upload some of my old and new innovative concepts to the world ... or so I thought. Many of the conceptual designs on this website have their roots in, or were modified by passage through, these files. Anchored tether space elevators, space carousel KESTS escalators to GEO, and low cost centrifugal space station unmanned launch and teleoperated docking assembly into a circle in LEO were among these topics. Public response back then in roundtable discussions were much as it is still: although lacking in technical discussion excuses, there has been a lot of hostility from those whose business outlook sees these concepts as rival to their fortunes ... perhaps an understandable reaction at first ... instead of seeing them as new opportunity for even greater cooperative ventures, including me as part of them... maybe they think I am attempting to horn in on their business games and bringing only a treasure map to the table, no cash; easily snubbed by the elite who run things. Sorry to say, that the vision I offered back then to avoid the path of wars and harsh conflict, by "the drama of achieving these in the vast room and resources of space can excite the imagination of humanity, supplying a new confidence in the future of humanity and of planet earth's ecology" was not attractive enough so they chose the war games path instead. A sad and horridly messy choice they made. Hey, I did my best to show them a better way. So, anyway, here are some of those files, as I have been able to ressurect them in the present day.

(Revised 2007/21/22 JEDCline.)

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Number: 475  Name: SPACE INSPIRATION
Address: J.E.D.CLINE1                Date: 880702
Approximate # of bytes: 11340
Number of Accesses: 41  Library: 3

Need for international cooperation in space. Five unusual forms of space transportation. Need for whole brain thinking in space planning and operations.

Keywords: transportation,shuttle,Mooncable,Starbridge,synthesis
[Background: This is my testimony given (by me, J. E. D. Cline) to the National Commission on Space on future directions for the American space program, on November 14, 1985 at the California Academy of Science, Golden Gate Park, California. The testimony was well received by the three Commissioners present, and by the audience, much to my surprise, me being so very fearful of public speaking; but I had a very important message to give, I thought, so I endured it.

Perhaps indicative of the energy of the times then and now, simultaneous with the day-long series of testimonies being given to the NCS in the Museum's auditorium, was that in the hall next door, Lucas was filming his space adventure spoof "Howard The Duck."]

In enthusiasm for the future of mankind, let's build and maintain an open door now for our future, into space and back. This can prepare a way to maintain a high civilization advancement rate without destroying the ecology of Mother Earth that bore our physical development up to this point and is now supporter and host to us.

There is urgency to creating a permanent open door between Earth and space. The rapid rate of loss of high energy density fossil fuel resources could permanently close the door to space for humanity, for example.

There are five types of interesting space transportation projects which I am going to briefly bring to excite your imagination here. But first, I am going to point out some significant sociological, psychological and material benifits of a massively expanded space program.

An initial benefit is that of greatly increasingproductivity at home, and then spreading outinternationally, as people become inspired by the visions ofnew hope for mankind's future: theirs and their children'schildren. As the basic task is for all humanity, and indeedfor all Earth life-forms ultimately to benifit, discoveriesof new depths of international mutually-respectfultogetherness action toward common goals would belearned...hopefully in a wise manner.

For example, the ancient oriental cultures can teach us tocombine the types of thinking of both our left and rightbrain hemispheres, linking the highly educated analyticalleft brain hemisphere with the great non-verbaldesign-synthesizing prowess of the brain's right hemisphere.

And then there is the hope for reasonably early return oflarge amounts of useful materials processed in space so asnot to pollute the Earth environment with industrial processwastes. Made available to people here on Earth, materialslike foamed-steel could be used for lightweight fireproofhousing construction, and the construction ofenergy-absorbing freeway crash barriers.

Perhaps more subtle than the urge to ensure a maximum oflife options for our children, is the urge for adventurousstimulation of our dreams and actions. So here are a fewspace transportation projects which I would like now tobring up for your attention, perhaps with some uniqueness.

The first is a combination of several contemporary concepts:to close the energy cycle for the space shutle mainengines, its hydrogen and oxygen fuel would come fromelectrolyzed seawater made through the use of energy beameddown from a dedicated prototype small Solar Power Satellitein geosynchronous orbit. Another plus is that the microwavebeam is there for lift energy for experimental vehiclesriding up, possibly using the air it initially passesthrough as reaction mass for the early boost phase.

The second concept is someone elses: thedynamically-supported earth-tower proposed by Ron Hyde ofLRL. An immense transportation tower reaching from thesurface of the Earth up through the atmosphere and out intospace, it overcomes the inadequate strength of existingmaterials for such a structure through using stored-energyfor the main structural support. Rather large amounts ofelectrical neergy is used to accelerate vast quantities ofberylium disks, whose energy is then used to support theelevator and structural components by sharing a bit of theirenergy electrically as they whiz by. The system storesseveral days' worth of supporting kinetic energy for theinevitable powerplant down-times. A large version of this"Starbridge" elevator would be able to lift the mass of allhumanity out into space in a matter of weeks (if there werea place built for all of us out there!)  In caution, one isreminded of the lesson of E-temen-an-ki, the biblical "Towerof Babel" that also was "to build a skyscraper building sotall as to enable man to enter the heavens." It'sconstruction was said to have been halted because theyfailed to learn how to truely communicate first. (Confoundit!). Ron Hyde shared this concept at a L-5 meeting in 1983;the basic concept of a centrifugally-supported Earth towerhad been proposed by K. Tsiolkovski in 1967. Ron Hyde'sproposal would overcome the difficulty shared by bothE-tamen-an-ki and Tsiolokovski: there are no known physicalmaterials nearly strong enough to do the job.

The third concept is based on an analogy of the "siphon",which is a device which lifts material up over a barier anddown the other side, without addition of energy from theoutside, once started. It is powered by the energydifferential existing between the starting point and thedestination point, and works only in one direction. Thegravitational space directly between the Moon and the Earthmight be envisioned as a gravitational hill with a shallowvalley on one side (the Moon"s surface), and a deep valleyon the other side (the Earth's surface); the peak of thehill is known as "L-1". Can we tunnel through this hill fromthe lunar valley floor? A siphon does that, energy-wise.

Here on Earth, we can siphon water through a rubber hose.Out there in space, siphon-like action might be acheivableby transfering energy from mass on the downhill (earthside)part of the trip, over to lift more material on the uphill(Lunarside) part. Electrical superconductor rails could beinstalled on a supporting tensile structure fastened on thesurface of the Moon, and electrically transfer the kineticenergy from decending electrical tractor-generators carryingpayload mass, over to lift more payload mass up off theLunar surface via electrical tractor motors. Space-ratedfiberglass is quite strong enough to carry the load if ithas a tapering cross-section; glass is an abundant materialon the surface of the Moon, available on-site forconstruction of this "Mooncable". At the L-1 balance point,in zero-gee, the main portion of payload mass would be castinto glider shapes, so that after traversing the earthsidepart of the cable, it can drop to glide the atmosphericportion of the trip to landing in oceans off seaports onEarth. I proposed this confidentially to NASA early in 1972, describing it as a profit-making enterprise.

The fourth concept is the use of a kinetic energy transfershuttle. In permanent eliptical orbit around the Earth-Moonpair, and with its main part massive enough to stay "cool"inside even in solar flares' radiation times, it dangles arope to graze the surface of the Moon as it passes by thefar side of the Moon. Readied payload on the Lunar surfacegrabs the long dangling rope (sometning like Hans Moravec'sSkyhook would have done on Earth), jerking it up off thesurface and storing its energy by whirling around the mainmass. The whirling continues as they go along thequasi-elliptical orbit until it passes near the Earth, thenwith precisely synchronized timing the payload is released,restoring the kinetic energy taken when lifting was done atthe Moon. The transfer shuttle then continues on aroundEarth, and heads back toward the Moon again. (Grab on at theMoon, whirl your energy until you jump off near the Earth.)

The fifth and last concept I wish to point out now, toinspire fresh creative thought in space transportationconcepts, might be called "tight orbiting" somewhatcryptically. We would need to find the strength ofcontemporary materials is enough to enable construction of avacum-enclosed, above orbital-velocity spinning ring-pair.Even at sea level (for example) each element along itscircumference would be at 18,000 mph and thus in orbitthere, enclosed inside a vacuum housing. Faster than18,000mph would possibly exert a force toward a higherorbit, possibly lifting payload with it. A pair ofcontra-rotating parallel horizontal spinning rings, drivenand supported by appropriate magnetic fields, wouldhopefully cancel out the urge to precess (my thinking getsuncomfortably fuzzy about here); otherwise it would have tobuilt near an Earth pole to keep it from tilting itself asthe Earth rotates. Questions are: will it stay together?Does faster mean that it will go up? How small can it bemade?

As a 17 year old boy, I and my cousin Howard tried to see ifa gyroscope could be spun up fast enough so that itscircumference would reach orbital velocity at the Earth'ssurface. The thought was more toward the idea of using it tofling a something off its edge up and out toward space. Weused a big 3600 rpm electric motor and rigged up suitablebelt and pulley ratios for the experiment. However, longbefore it got up to that speed, we discovered the limits tothe strengths of materials, and with a bang the maingyroscope spinner exploded, vanishing from sight. That thefragments missed both of us is memorably quite a relief tothis day.

There is danger in building the doors opening the future ofEarth lifeforms to space, but there is adventure there too,to stimulate the human organism with delightful excitement!(Postscript: Challenger and her crew's last adventure wentsour, and bitter was the excitement.)

This general concept of the space program is really aboutcaring for our civilization's continuing advancement whilecaring for the needs of the other kinds of living creatureswith which we share this earth. By bringing our life to thenow-lifeless parts of our solar system, and taking theindustrial load off of Earth's ecology, we gain immenseresources of material energy and room, and make a way tobegin the healing of the wounds of planet earth's livingecosystem. Out there in space we can build our living spacejust as we choose it to be, made out of extraterrestialmaterials.

Those of us who are here-and-now action-oriented people, arethe "do-ers" who can make these visions physically real.One task we have is to find ways to prevent these ones of usfrom becoming overwhelmed by visions of power strugglegames, with blaming finger ready to point away fromthemselves. We can do this by continuing to help them remainaware of the greater vision, of responsible belongingnessas part of creation, yet in adventure.

Our abilities to exert power over our environment and toanalyze our activities are tremendous. To these, then, weneed to add equally powerful abilities to pattern wholedesigns of envisioned possibilities. Technologicaladventures can evoke designs of exhuberantly happylifestyles for our children, and maybe even forourselves...if we are quick enough.

Thank you!

By James Edward David Cline 

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Number: 480  Name: INTRO TO MOONCABLE
Address: J.E.D.CLINE1                Date: 880707
Approximate # of bytes: 3780
Number of Accesses: 33  Library: 3

Introduction to purpose and general function of Mooncableproject, which is a Lunar tether through L-1, made ofLunar fiberglass and carries a combined transportation andmaterials processing function on a one-way trip.Purpose is to supply massive ammounts of Lunar materials toEarth markets and LEO.

Keywords: Mooncable,transportation,historical,elevator,tether,Moon

Inexpensive homes being constructed of superior structural materials made in free-fall vacuum from Lunar raw materials? A construction project in space to strongly challenge the enginuity and daring of hard-working engineers, planting mankind's feet solidly in space?  Would you like to see this happen?  I offer an idea for your active support , with perhaps just such a potential.  Please read it thoughtfullywithout preconception.  It offers some chance for space exploration to commercially pay for itself from here on out.(...this idea has such great potential significance that too great a time delay may cause an inability of our technology to implement it in later years, or perhaps interest will have died too far by then.)

I am proposing a specialized space transportation system, intended primarily to bring large quantities of materials  from the Moon to the Earth, and from the Moon into a low(Earth orbit) gravitational level.

Examination of the concept shows it has some very interesting properties.  Elements of the idea are very old, the most basic comparable concept was used as long ago as when the first ape swung from one tree to another on a vine, to keep from having to climb down one and then climb up another.

A siphon has a more closely related characteristic, which transfers mass from a higher gravitational level to a lower gravitational level yet bringing it up through a higher gravitational level than either the starting or ending level.

Fundamentally, the transportation process converts the gravitational energy of a mass being accellerated by a gravitational field into electrical energy, which is then transfered across the gravitational hump, or saddle, which exists between the Moon and the Earth, and there the electrical energy is reconverted into gravitational energy by lifting mass there.  The spacial reference necessary for this process is provided by a tensile structure attached to the Moon and extending part way toward Earth.  The stress on this structure consists of the weight of its own mass, the weight of the electrical conductors, and the forces due to the live loads on the structure, all extending through a varying gravitational field....

     James Edward David Cline

     Written April 27-30, 1972

     Input to GEnie Spaceport July 07, 1988

The "Mooncable: Gravitational-Electric Siphon in Space" proposal will be uploaded to GEnie when condensed to a reasonable size.

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Number: 485  Name: MOONCABLE PROJECT
Address: J.E.D.CLINE1                Date: 880717
Approximate # of bytes: 16380
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An unusual, highly specialized space transportation concept was generated to provide a profitmaking space enterprise. The concept offers highly energy efficient transportation of payload from the Lunar surface. Includes early calculations on a constant-stress crossection cable.

Keywords: Mooncable,transportation,maglev

By J. E. D. Cline, July 16, 1988

The Earth's physical makeup has so many incredible coincidences that are needed for life to exist upon it, and The Earth's moon seems an extention of those coincidences in the possible extention of Earthlife into space. The Lunar  tides of earth's oceans upon her beaches has stirred tidal life onto land from the sea; now the fact that the Moon always has the same face turned toward the Earth, and its relatively large mass near the Earth, show promise of a major stepping-stone for the extension of Earthlife into space.  And the Lunar terrain is a potential source for raw materials for building space colony structures, closed-ecology very-large-spacecraft for exploration/colonization beyond the Earth-Moon system, and for exotic construction materials for use here on Earth such as foamed-nickle-iron-steel.

Space transport systems are necessary to transfer material and energy from where it is now, over to where it will be needed.  Theoretically there are alternatives to the traditional reaction engine propelled vehicles which use energy stored in propellants. The energy differentials in space are another source of transportation energy. Picture the Earth and Moon as being two adjacent depressions in a gravitational field.  The Earth's depression is much deeper than that of the Moon's, so it is imaginable that material might be "siphoned" from the shallower depression into the deeper one. Could an electromechanical analogy of a siphon be constructed to move raw materials from the Lunar surface over to a somewhat deeper level in the adjacent Earth's gravitational well, using the energy differential itself to power the process?

The work involved in getting out of the Moon's gravitational well to L-1 is only about 800 watt-hours per kilogram; and going from L-1 to Earth requires each kilogram to give up about 16,000 watt-hours of energy, so there is plenty of energy to tap off for use in lifting mass up from the Moon to L-1.  Of course, most of the 16.5 KwHr/Kg must be dissapated in the atmospheric entry process after the payload leaves the end of the end of the "siphon".  With the end of the siphon-like electromechanical transport system extending deeper into Earth's gravitational well, surplus energy is produced which could be used to lift some of the payload up only to L-1, and leave from there with relative ease toward other parts of space near the Earth-Moon system. L-4, L-5, Mars and the asteroid belt, here we come!

[Calculation reference point: the work performed in lifting all the way out of a planet's gravitational well is the same as lifting out of a well which is one planet radius deep,with a constant accelleration the same as found on the planet's surface (reference Arthur C. Clarke's "TheExploration of Space" p.33), or

     Work = G*M*m*(integral from 1 to infinity)1/(R**2) dR

As a hobby, by the end of 1971 I had worked out just such a conceptual system; then there were extra Saturn 5 Moon rockets available from the Apollo flights that were cancelled, and they could be used to emplace the "seed"electromechanical transport system.  I called it the Mooncable Project.  It would be a profitmaking enterprise through the sale of space-environment processed materials originating on the Moon, processed and fabricated at L-1,and delivered for sale to Earth markets.  Space exploration would henceforth pay for itself!

(But the reality was that NASA was at that time starving for funds just for the Space Shuttle project to be started soon; and anyway NASA was prohibited by charter from financially supporting profit-making said a letter to me from NASA's Inventions and Contributions Board on June 23, 1972.  With no income from my efforts, my wife soon divoriced me, and it became appearant that my advertising of the Mooncable Project had attracted the wrong kind of attention: I soon lost my house too and then my job...mere survival became my focus of attention from then on.)

The foundation analogy for this concept is that a siphon can draw water out of an aquarium without using a pump, and does it a lot easier than dipping it out by hand. Picture the Earth and Moon being two adjacent depressions in a gravitational field.  The Earth's depression, or well, is much deeper than that of the Moon's, so it is imaginable that payload mass might be "siphoned" from the shallower well into the deeper one.  Basically this means that energy given up by payload mass falling down Earth's gravitational well is used to perform the work of lifting up more payload mass from the Moon up toward the earth, thus forming a regenerative energy loop, self-sustaining, as is a siphon, so long as the output end is at a lower gravitational energy level than is the input end.

The work involved in getting out of the Moon's gravitational well is only about 800 watt-hours per kilogram of payload; and going from the balance point between Earth and its moon, L-1, to Earth requires each kilogram of payload to perform about 16,000 watt-hours of work during its decent to the Earth surface.  So there is plenty of energy to tap off for use in lifting mass up from the Moon to L-1.

The key is to find a way to transfer the energy from the decending mass over to lift the rising mass.  One way might be to transfer energy electrically through superconductors linking the two masses; the superconductors could be part of a frictionless magnetic-levitation railroad track laid on a strong tensile structure coupling the two masses.  Coupling the energy between payload masses would be tractor motor-generators magnetically coupled to the maglev track, pouring energy into the track while braking the fall of mass down the earthside end of the track, and consuming that energy by lifting more payload mass up the other side of the track.  The Lunar surface spatial reference for this process is created by a very long tensile structure anchored on the Lunar surface and extending up through the balance point L-1 and over into the Earth's gravitational well. At the end of this document, the original calculations are shown which show that fiberglass is strong enough for this application, if it is formed into a constant-stress crossection cable. Glass is one of the most abundant materials found on the Lunar surface, making it ideal for building this very large tensile structure.

To protect the mooncable from being accidentally severed bysmall hurtling objects, the area of the cable might best be distributed in the form of a net or pair of hollow tubes.The conductors would be distributed for the same reason and to allow continuous power during repair activities and to allow bi-directional traffic along the cable for the returning traction motor/generators and delivery of goods from Earth.

While at the null-g balance point L-1, the Lunar ores are processed into useable forms.  Nicle-iron, aluminum, titanium, ceramics, and glass are foamed into large molds, casting them into glider shapes for the atmospheric re-entry portion of the journey to the Earth's surface.  Pockets in those gliders hold smaller amounts of more exotic materials processed in the space environment.  Here at L-1, 64,000 Km above the Lunar surface, material is also launched out toward other sites, such as L-4 & L-5 for building space colonies, for building very large spacecraft for leisurely manned exploration of the solar system, and for building Solar Power Sattellite powerplants. From L-1 a space tug would be needed to transport the material to L-5 or other sites.

The specific concept presented here is intended primarily for bringing Lunar and null-g vacuum environment commercial products to Earth at potentially very low expense on a long-term, high-mass payload, continuous operation basis. It should also be useable to supply the materials for constructing powersats (SPS), and the help supply materials for building colonies at L-4 & L-5 and large manned spacecraft for the further exploration of space. The general concept presented here is intended to arouse the readers' creative imagination toward seeking alternative paths for bringing mankind and other Earthlife into nearby extra-terrestrial space.

Addendum: at the time this concept was completed as a personal hobby activity, my only calculating tools were a slide rule and pen and paper.  Believing that all I had to do was to show that an abundant material was capable for use in constructing the major portion of the mooncable, and then others with adequate computers would eagerly fill in the refinements, I set out set out to the disagreeable task of figuring out how to calculate the forces and configuration of the Mooncable.  Making some outside limit observations by seeing the "big picture", I could more easily show that fiberglass was strong enough for a related but even more demanding structure.  The weight of the mooncable essentially is the same on either side of thebalance L-1 point, even though the mass on either side wouldn't necessarily be the same due to the varying gravitational fields it crossed.  So the structure just from one side, the Lunar side, was calculated; and it was easier to calculate from the Moon's surface out to infinity than to L-1, which I did not then want to calculate its location. My old college calculus books did not seem to have any applicable equations for integrating through varying gravitational fields., but I did find relevant equations in George Gamow's book "Gravity": the total work of lifting an object from R0 to some radius R, is the area under the curve representing the force of attraction:

     Work = integral from R0 to R of (GMm)/R2) dr

          = G*M*m*integral R0 to R (1/R2)dr

The integral of 1/r2 is -1/r: in general,

integral Rexp n dR = - (R exp (n+1))/(n+1), from Handbook of

Chemistry and Physics.  Thus the work "W" done is

W = - (GMm)/R - (-(GMm)/R0)

W = GMm(1/R0 - 1/R)

A constant-crossection glass cable extending from the surface of the Moon and going an infinite distance away (ignoring the presence of Earth and other bodies), would experience a supporting tensile force at its far end of :

     F = m*a

     F = m*(1/68g)*integral from 1R to infinite R of 1/r2 dr

     F = m*(1/6)*g*((1/1*R)-(1/infinite R)

     F = m*(1?6)*g*(1/R)*(1/12 - 1/ infinity)

     F = (1/6)*g*m/R

Now m/R is the mass of a length of one radius, and making the area equal to 1 square inch to make the results in engineering terms,

     m = area * length * density

     m = (1 in2)*(6.85 E7 inches)*(8.3 E-2 lbm/in3)

     m = 5.68 E6 lbm

Returning to F = (1/6)*g*(m/R)/in2

     F = (1/6)*g*5.68 E6 ;bm/in2

     F = 9.4 E5 ;bf/in2

Since glass fiber cable has a strength of 5 E5 lbf/in2, it is only half strong enough for this configuration. It probably can be made strong enough, however, by controlling its cross-sectional area, with an optimum distribution of area with distance being that which creates a constant stress within all parts of the cable's volume.

My personal ability to manipulate the concepts of calculus confidently does not allow me to write and solve the equations required to easily derive the cable's dimensions for a given set of loads.  However, I can show that a glass cable can be sufficiently strong by integration through summation of sections of cable, each section having the same maximum stress, that stress being in a cross-sectional area great enough to support the weight of that section with its loads plus the force applied at its lower end supporting the weight below it.

The characteristics of each section are derived as follows; assuming each section has a constant cross-sectional area throughout its length:

The weight of cable in each section is

     Fs = A*d*R* integral i/r2 dr

where Fs = weight of this section of cable

     A = cross-sectional area of this section of cable

     d = density of glass = 8.3E-2 lbm/in3

     R + radius length of Moon = 6.85 E7 inches

The stress at the top of each section is the greatest stress anywhere in the section, and with a safeth factor of two is2.5 E5 lbf/in2.  This stress is equal to the force on the cross-section divided by the area of the cross-section:

     S = (Fs + Fl)/A

where S = stress at top pf the section = 2.5 E5 lbf/in2

     Fl = attached load (bottom weight + conductor etc)

     A = cross-sectional area of cable section

Expanded, this equation becomes

     S = ((A*d*R*integral 1/r2 dR)+Fl)/A

Solving for Area A:

     A = Fl/(S-d*R*integral 1/r2 dR

The force at the secion top then is

     F = A*S = (Fl*S)/(S-d*R*integral 1/r2 dR, or

Fn+1 = (Fn*S)/(S-d*R*(1/6)*g integral 1/r2 dR

The force, F, then becomes part of the attached load, Fl, of

the next cable secion above it.

     F0 = force pulling upward on Moon's surface by the


     F1 = force atop first section of cable, and at bottom

of second section

     F2 = force atop second section of cable and at bottom

of third secion, and so forth.

S, d, and R are constants:

     S= 2.5 E5 lbf/in2

     d= 8.3 E-2 lbm/in3

     R = 6.85 E7 in

To make an example Mooncable calculation, some values willbe somewhat arbitrarily assigned:

     maximum upward pull on the Moon's surface by the cable and its loads is to be 25,000 lbf

     superconducting maglev track will be equal in mass to two #12 copper wires, resulting in a mass of 2.2 E5 lbm per radius.  When this becomes a hundredth of the glass cable'sweight it will be left out of the calculations for simplicity.

     the maximum force due to the live load will be 1 E4 lbf This would be something less than 6 E4 lbm on the lunar surface; it is a dynamic load.

Dividing the cable up into 23 sections, summing the forces atop each section, reached a value of less than 21 in2 at infinity, a realistic number.  This shows that fiberglass cable does inded have an adequate strength/mass ratio to do the job.  Since the calculations were "outside approximations" the area would be less than this figure; also the attraction of the Earth on the cable, and the centrifugal orbital force on the cable would affect the full parameter calculations, while the mooncable lies in the saddle formed between two adjacent gravitational wells of the Earth and its Moon.

James Edward David Cline  (GEnie J.CLINE2)
Van Nuys, CA  July 16, 1988

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Address: J.E.D.CLINE1                Date: 880924
Approximate # of bytes: 3780
Number of Accesses: 31  Library: 3

A combination of little-known Earth-basedspace transportation conceptsis combined with a Solar Power Satelliteto provide a means of providing SPS solarpower to earth without a microwave beamand provides means of transportingimmense amounts of payload to GEO atvery low cost, and supplies its ownpower for transportation betweenEarth and space.

Keywords: Starbridge, Launchloop,transportation,electricity,SPS

By J. E. D. Cline

There are several little-known space transportation systemconcepts in the literature, that are currently not receivingnearly enough attention here in the US.  It is important tothe near-future space program to give a serious look atthese concepts...or a derivative of them...which have thepotential for greatly accellerating the progress of aspacefaring society.  And there is a potential for combiningtheir unique power-handling abilities with an SPS so as tohave an additional benifit of providing salable electricalpower delivered to the Earth's surface without use of theobjectionable microwave power beam.

Since our frontier is only 90 miles away, up, (on a highwayit would be only a couple of hours' drive) it would be wiseto investigate such alternate Earth-to-space transportation concepts, like the vertical dynamically-supported Earthtower "STARBRIDGE", proposed by Ron Hyde, and the "LAUNCHLOOP" concept proposed by Keith Lofstrom.  Their source ofpower would be electrical, and once such a megaproject isbuilt, it would enable powering itself by a dedicated SolarPower Satellite, thus taking the burden off the Earth forthe energy to transfer payloads between Earth and space.  Inprinciple it takes only a few cents' worth of electricity,about 16 KWHr, to lift a kilogram to geosynchronous orbitfrom the Earth's contrast to the thousands ofdollars it costs using conventional transportation meanssuch as the space shuttle.  Indeed, electrical energy isinherently stored in such systems in immense amounts, andmight be a way to actually supply power to Earth from SolarPower Satellites without using controversial microwavebeams.

Electrical power from fossil fuels is used to lift and power-up the structure of such a transport system, thenmaterial for a prefab Solar Power Satellite is sent up onthe system for installation at its geosynchronous orbitterminal; thereafter solar energy is used to support and runthe transportation system and also to suppy electricalpower to Earth's surface, put into the conventional powergrid at the bottom end of the structure. Power istransferred along the transportation structure in the formof the kinetic energy of a stream of extremely fast movingobjects.  Power is put into, and taken out of, the system byelectrically accellerating or decellerating the stream ofobjects.  The stream flows in an airless tube which isitself supported by electrical drag on the stream ofultrafast objects.  Although still conceptual in nature,their potential for moving absultely enormous amounts ofmaterial and people from Earth into space in a short time atvery low cost using somewhat elevator-like means, couldtotally change the way things are built in space.

These concepts suggest that a "highway" to space may befeasable using near-contemporary technology, supplyingelectrical power to Earth as a byproduct, and they need ourserious attention SOON.

           J. E. D. Cline  (GEnie J.E.D.Cline1)
           5632 Van Nuys Blvd. #110
           Van Nuys, CA 91401

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This is a technological synthesisutilizing the concepts of SPS/Powersat,power storage rings, Launch Loop, andStarbridge.  The synthesis results ina design that supplies electrical power to the Earth, as well asproviding an enormous space transportationcapability.


by  J. E. D. Cline      September 31,1988

Ref: GEnie Spaceport file #553

This is a technological conceptual synthesis utilizing theconcepts of SPS Powersat, Power Storage Ring, ElectricalPower Transmission Line, Launch Loop, and Starbridge.  Itsintent is to provide a stimulus for a greatly expanded spaceprogram through its byproduct of providing large amounts ofpollution-free electrical power delivered to meet the moreimmediate needs of people on Earth.

The EXPECTED PROBLEM is that progress is far too slow toachieve space colonization prior to Earth losing too manyspecies' genotypes, and preserving its balanced ecologyneeded to provide indefinite support of a teemingcivilization, and that reaction-engine propulsion technologyuses too much of Earth's resources to be practical formass exodus to space.

The PROPOSED SOLUTION is to merge several leading-edge spaceconcepts into a design which has a byproduct of supplyinggreat amounts of electrical power to Earth-surface powergrids, for the more immediated needs' attention of everydaylife.

The EXPECTED RESULTS are a renewed interest by the averageperson in a greatly expanded space program, resulting in theconstruction of combined electrical power systems and spacetransportation systems such as proposed herein.  This systemwould take the load off the fossil fuel supply now beingconsumed as the primary source of power on Earth, while atthe same time a space transportation "highway" system isproviding massive transport of materials and people betweenEarth surface and space settlements. A spacefaring societycivilization transfers the majority of humanity intoartificial worlds built in Geosynchronous orbit and in theL-4/L-5 libration points 240,000 miles from Earth, while theEarth's ecology is gradually restored to a function ofpreserving a diversity of species genotypes.The conceptual synthesis will be presented next, followed bya brief description of the component concepts, then thesequence of actualization will be described briefly.

The CONCEPTUAL SYNTHESIS: A Solar Power Satellite located ina geosynchronous orbit converts solar energy intoelectrical power.  This electrical energy is used toaccellerate a stream of ultrafast objects headed down anenclosing guide tube or ring toward the Earth's surfaceterminal.  At the Earth terminal, some of the electrokineticenergy is tapped off to feed into the Earth surfaceelectrical power grid, and the rest is redirected backtoward space in the enclosing tower tube or ring.  Themassive stream of ultrafast objects is accelleratedelectromagneticaly to add energy to it, and decelleratedelectromagnetically to extract energy from it.  Some of itselectrokinetic energy is transferred to the tubular guidewayused to keep the air out where it is in the Earth'satmosphere, and to provide support and power for thetransportation system that runs along its length. The resultis an electrical power supply for Earth, and a self-poweredeconomical transportation link connecting the Earth'ssurface with geosynchronous orbit.

The SPS POWERSAT concept was proposed in the "60's by PeterGlaser.  Located in GEO, it converts the endless solarenergy there into electrical energy through use of vastsilicon solar cell arrays, or by using a Helium-Braytonturbine system.  The original SPS concept then used apowerful microwave beam to beam the gigawatts of power tothe Earth's surface.

An ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION LINE: is what connectselectrical power sources with the users of electrical power.On earth the lines are made of copper or aluminum wires,and connect sources such as hydroelectric, fossil fuel oilor natural gas, nuclear-electric and wind generator powerplants, with their customer homes and industrial users.

POWER STORAGE RINGS: were proposed to store electrical powerproduced during the low-demand hours of the day, and thenadd their energy during peak power demand hours.Hydroelectric power storage is used now. This concept woulduse a huge ring enclosing and guiding a massive stream ofhurtling ultrafast objects, which stores energyelectrokinetically.  Power is added or extracted from thestorage ring stream by accellerating or decellerating themassive stream electromagnetically.

LAUNCH LOOP: a powerful space transportation concept byKeith Lofstom, would be similar to the power storage ringconcept.  However, it only touches the Earth's surface atone point; from there it bounces up to geosynchronous orbit,then circles back down around the Earth to reconnect at thesame point on the surface.  In the version proposed by EarlSmith in "The Texas and Universe Railroad" the Earth surfaceterminal would be located in Texas, resulting in requiring passing over only one other country, and being subject tothe state's lenient railroad regulatory agency.

STARBRIDGE: another powerful space transportation conceptproposed by Ron Hyde in about 1983.  It would be adynamically-supported Earth tower, reaching from the Earth'ssurface toward space.  Located at the slope and base of amountain, Earth-sourced electrical power is used toaccellerate a vast stream of ultrafast beryllium disks(which have a magnet attached to each one) in anelectromagnetic accellerator on the mountain slopes.  Theaccellerator directs the stream down the mountain, around ina loop, and back up the mountain slope; the stream thencontinues upward in a vacuum withing a tube supported byenergy extracted from the electrokinetic energy containedwithin the moving stream.  At the top end of the Starbridgetower, a reflector returns the stream of objects back downthe tube to return for re-accelleration in the mountainsideaccellerator.  This transportation system would consumeprodigious amounts of Earth resource electrical power, butwould be able to lift payload mass equal to that of everyhuman being on Earth in a matter of a couple of weeks!The Launch Loop and the Starbridge concepts...or aderivative of them...offer a way to create a "highway"between Earth surface and space.  Their source of powerwould be electrical, and once such a megaproject is built,in this conceptual synthesis it would  enable poweringitself by a dedicated Solar Power Satellite, thus taking theburden off the Earth for the energy to transfer payloadsbetween EArth and space.  In principle it takes only a fewcents' worth of electricity, about 16KWHr, to lift akilogram to geosynchronous orbit from the Earth' contrast to the thousands of dollars it costsper kilogram of payload using conventional reaction enginepropulsion systems. Supplying excess electrical power fromthe Powersat to energize the Earth surface electrical powergrid would pay for the construction of the energy/transportsystem, and help take the load off of fossil fuel reserves,preserving them for the much more critical petrochemicalfeedstocks needed for the future.

SEQUENCE OF ACTUALIZATION of this concept starts with powerfrom conventional electrical power sources being used tolift and power-up the structure of such a transport system,then components of a prefab Solar Power Satellite is sent upthe system for installation at its geosynchronous orbitterminal.  Thereafter solar energy from the SPS is used tosupport and run the transportation system and also to supplyelectrical power to Earth's surface, put into theconventional power grid at the bottom end of the structure.Power is transferred along the transportation sturcture inthe form of the kinetic energy of a stream of extremelyfast moving objects.  Power is put into, and taken out of,the syustem by electromagnetically accellerating ordecellerating the stream of objects.  The stream flows in anairless tube which is itself supported by electrical dragon the massive stream of ultrafast objects within itself.Energy is supplied to Earth surface, and a highway to spaceis created to enable civilization to move into space.Although still conceptual in nature, the potential of suchconcepts for moving absolutely enormous amounts of materialand people from Earth and space in a short time atrelatively very low cost using somewhat elevator-like means,could totally change the way things are built in space.These concepts suggest that a "highway" to space may befeasable using near-contemporary technology, supplyingelectrical power to Earth as a byproduct, and enablingcivilization to have an exodus into artificial worlds builtin near-earth space, and start the healing of Earth'secology and preservation of a maximum of diversity ofspecies genotypes.  It is important that we do start thissoon.

     J.E.D.CLINE1 (GEnie address)
     James Edward David "Jim/Jed/Dave" Cline
     5632 Van Nuys Blvd. #110
     Van Nuys, CA 91401
     (818) 909-0143

Apologies are offered for all errors or ommissions.  Allcomments which can be used to improve future rewrites ofthis will be appreciated.  Perfecting analysis, engineeringrealism and socioeconomic factors are needed to providefeedback to improve the conceptual synthesis' viability.

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Number: 747  Name: HWY TO EARTH GEO RING
Address: J.E.D.CLINE1                Date: 890209
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General audience writeup of the kinetic-energy-supported space elevator structure concept, providing economical transportation into space at high payload volume, primary power from SSPS, including surplus power delivered to earth; spacecraft construction at GEO, Stanford Torus type space habitat construction at GEO.

Keywords: elevator,habitat,torus,transportation,power

                    J. E. D. Cline

     Fortunately, the resources of energy to make thingshappen, raw materials for building things, and  vast room to live in, so needed now to take the burden of mankind's greatness off of the ecosystem of our Mother Earth, is available in space. Those resources are close, starting only ninety miles or so away, 90 miles straight up overhead,that is.

     Although that ninety miles is a steep climb, one whichthe world is currently able to make for only a few people ata time (without much of a place to go, either; no hotelsthere yet) aboard chemically fueled spacecraft like thespace shuttle, the key links for creating a true highway forthe bulk of humanity into space may already exist inconcept. Let me show you a neat design for connecting thoselinks into a unified picture of Earth's ecological system,human civilization and highways to space habitats.

     First we need a hypothetical belief that it can bedone, can be achieved, and done well.  That belief will liftus up out of appearant dead-end tracks along the way,energizing us with a reminder of the whole picture, the map.Yes, we CAN get there from here.

     Next, a quick reminder of why we need to do it.  Likehumanity eliminating forever one species of earth lifeformsevery week or so, mostly in the rainforests being slashedand burned for farmland, then exhaused to wasteland.  Add tothe list that the arid wastelands of the entire world arecollectively expanding at the rate of about 40 square milesper day.  The Sahara desert once was a well-wateredsavannah.  We are burning up many billions of dollars offossil fuel petrochemicals every year, and replacing none ofit.  Worldwide we pile up one billion tons of garbage peryear, putting it somewhere.  OK, that is enough thinkingabout this; let's not get down in the dumps with fascinationabout such things.  Solutions are at hand, harmonioussolutions.  Believe.

     Looking upward and outward for a new place to live forteeming humanity, let's creatively explore how to get thereand where to live exactly, once there.

     Chemically-fueled rocket propulsion transportationseems much too limited in this application, due to theenormous chemical energy needed to conventionally lift intospace, per person.  There are several billions of us needingto go, and soon, if we are to stop crushing our belovedplanetary ecosystem. Most of the energy in chemical rocketryis used just to lift the fuel itself; relatively little ofthat fuel energy is used to lift payload itself.  So let'slook at the past for solutions, in light of today'stechnological advances.

     Eliminating the fuel used just to lift most of thefuel, would make the process far more efficient.  If thevehicle is already moving fast enough, say 18,000 mph, as itleaves earth surface, that would put it into orbit withoutlifting fuel just to lift fuel...if our atmosphere were notin the path, that is.  Trying to punch its way through theair at 18,000 mph would consume its velocity and destroy itwith the heat caused by shoving that much air aside thatfast.  Like a meteor burning up. So...let's move the airaside first, out of the path.  Move the vehicle through atube which has had all the air pumped out of it, ahead oftime.

     A very long tube it would be, and surely very heavyaltogether.  How to hold it up?  By converting our 18,000mph vehicle into a steady stream of vehicles, each of whichdrags upward a little on the tube as it rises toward space,the tube can be supported in the earth's gravity field.Shifting our thinking a little more, convert the vehiclesinto just a mass stream moving at the 18,000 mph within thevacuum inside of the tube, the mass stream supports the tubeby giving up a small part of its velocity, its kineticenergy, as it flows through the tube.  The tube then becomesa fixed structure, attached to the earth's surface on oneend.  This structure could be used to move vehicles alongits outer surface, like an elevator does.  A "spaceelevator".

     The elevator cars on such an elevator could lift upwardby electromagnetically dragging against the upward streamof mass within the tube.  Low friction tracks, such asmagnetic levitation tracks, would make the process moreefficient.  No fuel for this process is needed to be lifted.

     The mass stream in the tube travels in a circuit,returning back and forth between earth surface and somewherein space.  Ideas are built on ideas; a version proposed byKeith Lofstrom would cycle from one point on earth surfaceupward, across some great distance, then return to surface,be reversed, go back along the route to the starting point,all in a continual flow.  Expanding on this, Earle Smithproposed a continuous flow from one point on the earth,circling out to geophysical earth orbit (GEO), continuing onaround the earth to return to the intiial point on theearth, again in a continuous stream.  Rod Hyde proposed aversion that would essentially go straight up; the streamwould be reversed in direction at its upward end, returningdown alongside the upward part of the stream, back to thestarting point on earth, back and forth between earth andspace.

     All these versions are powered by electricity. The massstream is pushed along by magnetic fields interactingbetween the stream and magnetic fields alongside the tube.Rod Hyde envisioned the stream as being composed by vastquantities of berylium disks, each with a magnet attached.The stream would be powered by electricity, and a largeversion consuming as much electricity as a large city, wouldbe able to lift all the billions of humans on the planetnow, out into space in just two weeks' operating time. Hyde,Lofstrom and Smith presented these concepts in 1984.  Theirstructures are very big and expensive, and untried.  Puttingsuch structures up seems a major undertaking with muchrisk, even worldwide.  However, these structures have thepotential of being able to move the bulk of humanity outinto space.  If they had somewhere to go, that is.  It wouldtake a lot of courage to put such structures up, it seems.

     Getting back into the creative thought mode, let'scontinue on with the design.  Where do the people go, inspace?  Well, there are limits to where these elevators cango, for they are essentially compression structures,depending on compressive force to hold them together.  Thus,they would not be able to go beyond the geophysical orbit;in fact, Hyde's version depends upon earth gravity toreverse the flow back toward earth surface at its upwardend, thus not able to reach GEO by itself.  And anythinggetting off these elevators short of GEO would fall back toearth, fast, unless accellerated adequately first, as inLofstrom's Launch Loop versions.  GEO, geosynchronous earthorbit, seems ideally suited for the upward terminal of suchelevators, because GEO is stationary relative to theearth's surface.  Thus one end of the elevator is on theearth, motionless; the upward end is stationary at GEO.Anywhere else would require relative orbital motion; theconnection between elevator and upward orbital terminal thenwould become high-velocity, requiring complex energyexchanges as payload moves between them.  At GEO, payloaddirectly connects to the orbital terminal.  Hyde's versionof the space elevator might use a long tether balancedacross GEO, the tether's downward end reaching the top ofthe elevator, so as to span the remaining distance to GEO.

     Here at GEO we can build space colonies, space habitatsor settlements.  If we build the wheel-shaped Island OneStanford Torus space settlement design envisioned by NASA in1975 (ref. NASA SP-413,although for use at L-5 then), thereis room for 1,475,000 of these wheels, if strung togetherlike pearls on a necklace for mother earth, circling theearth above the  equator, 5 earth radii above the planet'ssurface.  In the Stanford Torus design, the wheel is over amile in diameter, rotating so as to provide earth normalartificial gravity effects, and the wheel innertube is 427feet wide inside.  Divided up into three secions ofagriculture, alternated with 3 sections for human residenceand light industry in closed ecosystems, this single ring ofStanford Torus wheel-like habitats around the earth wouldhouse up to 15 billion people, far more than the whole earthhas now or possibly could accommodate well.  Solar energyabounds up there, on the average seven times as much asarrives on an equal surface on the earth. Sunshine abundantfor growing crops in the agricultural areas on the StanfordTorii, which in turn feed livestock and the humanpopulation.

     It would be well for there to be many such elevatorsconnecting earth to this GEO habitat ring, perhaps eachnation would have at least one elevator.  The initialStanford Torii would be built from materials lifted up fromthe earth, along with the robotic machinery to continuallybuild more of these habits.

     Once there are these space settlements up there, a fewat least, with 10,000 people each, the picture of space willlook different.  Building spacecraft up there, it will berelatively easy to return to the moon, from where we willget most of the structural raw materials for most of theStanford Torus habitats to be built in GEO.  Trips out toget asteroids for more material would become as commonplaceas airplanes now land and takeoff at airports.  Water andother valuable chemicals might come from the moons of theouter planets, if we choose not to take the water from earthglaciers instead, to water the agricultural areas in thespace habitats.

     Electrical power to run the space habitats comes fromsolar power stations, designed in the '60's.  The sametechnology might well be used alongside each of the spaceelevator structures, supplying power to operate theelevators, instead of using energy from earth.  Indeed, thesolar power satellites could put extra energy intoaccellerating the elevator mass streams in the downwarddirection, which could be drawn off from the stream'skinetic energy at the earth surface contact sites, to supplyelectrical power to power whatever human civilizationremains on the planetary surface.  However, hopefullyhumanity will be responsible enough to have people only onearth surface to restore the planetary ecology, and runvacation resorts for GEO ring residents.

     This overall design of kinetically-supported spaceelevators linking a ring of space habitats located at GEO,all powered by solar power station technology, and withtransportation materials link from the ring to the moon andelsewhere in space, seems cohesive.  Thus it is due furtherdesign work.  To deveop technology and get real-worldexperience with the dynamics of long space elevator-likestructures, perhaps the concepts could be reduced toessences.  For example, the mass stream perhaps could beglass fibers, with magnetic material embedded within thefiber at specific distances along it.  These fibers could beelectromagnetically accellerated within a fine tube, say 20mils in diameter.  The tube would be pumped free of air, andthe fibers prevented from contact with the tube walls viaelectromagnetic fields along the tube.  With a reflector ofthe steam of fibers at one end, the reflection processresults in a tensile force; this force could provide liftenergy for the end of the tube.  As in the larger versions,some of the kinetic energy of the rising high-velocity massstream of glass fibers would be used to support the tubealong its length.  Steering of the rising end could beaccomplished by shifting the center-of-gravity of thereflector relative to the tube, providing off-balancelateral forces, resulting in a steering mechanism.  Thestream would be accellerated on the earth surface; coiledprior to raising, the volume of this example would be onlybe equivalent to a cube 50 feet on an  edge, and the lengthstill be able to reach almost to GEO.  A longer versioncould emplace a seed elevator of the kind that loops fromearth surface, out around to GEO at the opposide side of theearth, continuing to loop back to the starting site onearth surface.  Bundles of such micro-diameter spaceelevators might be used to support very large elevator carsgoing to GEO, carrying materials, tools, and personnel tobuild the first space habitats there.

     This design for an expanding human civilization locatedin near-earth (GEO) space, linked directly to the earthsurface by kinetically-supported space elevator structures, powered by solar satellite power technology, and a healing of the earth's ecological system, would require only technology development, not major breakthroughs in science.The untested basic concepts of elevator transportation into space need to be demonstrated to the public eye, as well as catching the public awareness for presentation of such opportunities to take the ecological load off of mother earth while at the same time provide for a greatly expanding human civilization.  Given the viability of this scenario, the implementation of it would remain the decision of a responsible humanity.  If undertaken as a major effort (say, using half of what each nation now spends on defense preparations each year), this would become one of the great adventures of all time for the majority of humans now living on earth surface.

     References: GEnie Spaceport Library, files # 690, 671, 655, 644, 634, 629, 592, 581, 573, 563, 553, and 475.

by James Edward David Cline ("Jed")
Van Nuys, California   February 9, 1989

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Number: 927  Name: LONGTRANS 2
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This is part of a talk given to the SSI SST, summarising the Mooncable Project, the Two Body Orbiting Skyhook, and the KESTS/GEO Habitat Ring.

Keywords: Mooncable,Skyhook,KESTS,SSPS,transportation.


                    by J. E. D. Cline          890717

Prepared for presentation to the SSI Space Studies Team.This part of the talk will be devoted to a view of threeunusual space transportation concepts:

     The MOONCABLE PROJECT, a captive form of tensilestructure, or tether, attached to the surface of a lunarbody and supported by an adjacent gravitational well;supporting conductors that couple kinetic energy between thetwo gravitational wells;

     The TWO-BODY-ORBITING SKYHOOK, a free spinning tethershuttling back and forth between two unequal gravitationalwells, along two abruptly changing trajectories;

     The KESTS / GEO HABITAT RING, which looks like a tetherbut is actually a very long dynamically supportedcompressive structure, connecting the bottom of agravitational well with its associated geosynchronous orbit.

     The picture of two objects in space connected by a longthin structure, is a common element among the subjectconcepts. The fundamental characteristics of each of thesestructures involve associated concepts, such as theMooncable's zero-gee casting at L-1 of foamed material intoatmospheric re-entry shapes; and the enormous ring of spacehabitats in GEO being accessed directly from the Earthsurface by the KESTS structure concepts.

    But first I would like to remind you that space,extraterrestrial space with its abundant resources, isessential to a continued expansion of a civilized humanpopulation while taking the load off of the environment thatgave us life. Indeed, it might be said that Mother Earth isvery pregnant with humanity, and must give birth soon orboth Mother and child will perish!  Perhaps it is fittingthat the form and function of the following proposed supplylinks resemble umbilicals.  In that service, then, thefollowing inspirations are offered you.


     Reference figure 1.

     The Mooncable concept is a long tensile structurebalanced across the L-1 libration point between the Earthand the Moon, and attached to the lunar surface at one end.With essentially equal weights in either direction from L-1,it hangs in place, forming an energy tunnel from the lunarsurface to a slightly lower gravitational energy level 1/6the way into the Earth's gravitational field.  The structureis made of fiberglass, which has a strength of 500,000 lbfdue to being made and used in a hard vacuum...there is noair to force its way into the surface microcracks that arethe primary breaking mechanism on Earth.  The structure istapered to provide a constant-stress-crossection, thickestwhere it passes through L-1.  Conductors along the length ofthe structure couple energy generated by payload brakingdown the Earthside of the cable, over to the Lunarside ofthe cable to lift more payload up to L-1, in a processanalogous to a siphon.  In the initial version of theconcept developed in 1971-72, Lunar nickle-iron meteoricdebris was to be hauled up to the manufacturing site at L-1,where solar furnaces melted this natural stainless steeland foamed it into molds casting it into re-entry glidershapes. After being dropped off the earthside end of theMooncable, and remote-controlled atmospheric entry andgliding to near seaports, tugs would go out to retrieve thefloating glider, haul it to port and saw it up for use inbuilding freeway crash bariers, fireproof homes, and impactabsorbing car bodies, for example.  Pockets cast into thegliders would transport smaller amounts of other exoticmaterials and devices, such as hollow ball bearings, toEarth markets. Large spacecraft would have been built at L-1for manned exploration of the solar system in relativecomfort. It was to be built in a bootstrap process, whereone of the remaining Saturn V boosters would be used tolaunch a craft to L-1, where a micro-diameter Mooncable offiberglass would be despooled in both downward directions,and in the process soft-landing a robot glass-factory on theLunar surface at that end of it.  From the solar furnacesin that robot fiberglass plant, up would be lifted fibers togradually increase the girth of the Mooncable....


     This is a modified Moravec-Skyhook useful fortransferring payload from the surface of a moon to a pointdominated by the parent planetary body, using the greatergravitational field of the nearby planet as an energy pump to sustain the process. A permanently orbiting spacecraftwould dangle a long tether to briefly touch the farside of the Lunar surface as it passes by, grabbing awaitingpayload.   Then the combined whirling masses would continueon around the Moon in an orbit that passes near the Earth.At the precise instant that the whirling tethered mass pairh as the payload deepest in the Earth's gravitational field,the payload would be released, restoring the kinetic energyto the spacecraft that was given up when the pickup was madeoff the Moon.  The tether would be reeled in or let out before release, to compensate for varying payload mass whenrestoring kinetic energy to the spacecraft...letting thewhirling payload drop deeper into Earth's well beforerelease would give the orbiting spacecraft extra energy,such as for compensating for having some of the payload moveaboard the spacecraft, for example.  The tether attachmenton the spacecraft would have to loosely spin around its CG,like a yo-yo with a loose string, or a "Y" fitting to eitherside of craft's CG, unless it was unmanned and didn't careif it wobbled erratically.  The spacecraft-skyhook wouldthen continue on back to pick up another payload off of theMoon.  Reference figure 2.

     This concept I feel the least comfortable about.Energy-wise, it seems plausable, being able to freely supplyits own transportation energy, like the siphon-likeMooncable concept.  However, the orbital mechanics is veryshaky; Kepler's laws are not yet fully in my conceptualworking grasp.

     It must cycally shift between two orbits, due to theabrupt energy transfers at the pickup and release points. Itmay be limited to a single spacecraft/payload mass ratio toenable the moon-to-planet path.  It may require unmanned operation, due to the abrupt accellerations at the pickup and release points...or at least crews chosen for iron-gutqualities!

     A supply of reaction engine fuel would be needed on thespacecraft, to be used in case of ever missing a payload pickup, to return to Earth vicinity and again to go back to Lunar pickup point for another try.  If the clockwork never fails, this seems to provide extremely energy-efficient payload transportation from Moon surface to an energy levelsomewhat less than 5/6 of Earth's gravity well.

     KESTS/ GEO HABITAT RING: Kinetic-Energy SupportedTransportation Structures, and implications for massiveearly true space colonization:

     Reference figure 3.

     The KESTS--acronym for Kinetic-Energy-Supported Transportation Structures--are so novel to our conventional reaction-engine-technology-thinking, and so ripe with evocative implications for massive transportation linksbetween Earth surface and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit, thatperhaps it is worth starting thinking the concept fromscratch.  So let's mentally synthesize this together, rightnow, setting aside the critic part of our mind until hearingout the development of the concept as it currently stands.Picture a small object, frozen in motion as it passes byyou faster than orbital velocity.  It is going so fast that it would escape out beyond GEO, were it not for the presense of the atmosphere, which would disipate its kinetic energy as it burned it up like a meteor.

     However, now add to this picture atube in which the hurtling object moves; the tube occupiesthe exact trajectory path of the speeding object, andexcludes the air from the object's path, so the objectdoesn't burn up. Now let the hurtling object multiply itself, become a constant stream of similar objects, allmoving in the vacuum inside the tube along the trajectory path.  Add appropriate electromagnetic and electrostaticfields between the tube and the stream of speeding objectswhich flows within it, such that the fields prevent theobjects from physically touching the tube wall, and alsodrag slightly upwards on the tube, supporting the tubes'sweight in the Earth's gravitational field.  Let there be asecond stream tube attached to the side of the first one,which has its stream going in the opposite direction fromthe first one.  Picture this pair of fast stream tubes asthey form a path almost horizontally past you, curving outand away from the Earth's globe, reaching out to GEO abovethe equator on the far side of the Earth from you. Createaccellerators here on Earth and along its loops in space,supplying energy to replace losses in the system.  Nowpicture payload boxcars travelling along the outer side ofthis pair of tubes, which are lifted and held away from thekinetic energy stream, by the same magnetic fields that holdthe tube away from the stream pair.  See these boxcarscarry people and materials between Earth surface and GEO.See space settlements being built in GEO out of materialsbrought up along the KESTS.  Perhaps these space settlementsare similar to the Island One Stanford Torus designs, eacha self-sufficient habitat for 10,000 people.  See many ofthese KESTS, linking each nation to some part of the GEOHabitat Ring, being built now mostly out of Lunar materials.Mass drivers/catchers, or Mooncables, or Two-body OrbitingSkyhooks, or more KESTS on the Moon, are providingeconomical transfer of material from the Moon to build thestructures in GEO.  Picture the huge robot assembler-factories building the segments of the Banded Torus growingto eventially completely ring the Earth in GEO, 1.5 millionof the Island-one's, each one providing home for 10,000people and the agriculture and industries to support themthere. Picture billions of people living in this GEO HabitatRing, generally living in peaceful, constructive harmonytogether.  See a spacefaring civilization starting to reachout from there toward the other resources in the solarsystem, bringing a multitude of Earth's lifeforms along withthe people as they go.  Feel the adventure of building theKESTS and GEO Habitat Ring, much as it felt to help build atreehouse as a youth, and the sense of safe haven there highabove the ground.

     Thank you for building this picture with me.

     Consider starting small.  If the stream tube is only 20thousanths of an inch in diameter each, it would onlyoccupy a volume equivalent to a cube 50 feet on a side,coiled on the Earth surface before rising up toward GEO.Such a tube might use a stream composed of a fiberglassfilament with steel particles embedded periodically alongits length. If instead of looping around the Earth, it wentupward to a reverser of the stream which would have to belight enough to be lifted by the thrust of the force thestream bouncing back down the second tube back toward theEarth, where it would be re-accellerated again for itsupward direction travel.  Shifting the CG of the reverserwith respect to the force of the stream reversing process,would provide a steering mechanism.  Such a tiny versioncould go up and come back down when task is finished; itcould be used to deliver respectable amounts of fiberglassto GEO; bundles of them could be used to support hugepayloads.

     One short-term use of these KESTS is perhaps the onemost likely to attract the attention of contemporaryAmerica: providing large amounts of electrical power toearthsurface power distribution networks.  The KESTS is usedas an energy delivering system.  The principle is thatSSPS, Satellite Solar Power stations, hovering alongside aKESTS to provide power to maintain its support and materialstransport function, would also pour accellerationelectromagnetically to the downward direction stream.  Theenergy from sunlight up there is converted into kineticenergy.  At the earthsurface terminal, electricallyconductive coils resist the pulses of magnetic energy drivenby the mass stream's magnets, slowing the stream thereslightly, and absorbing the kinetic energy by converting itinto the current generated by the pulsing magnetic field ofthe stream.  This electrical current would be rectified,inverted, and synchronized with the 60 Hz power gridfrequency, for delivery to whoever uses electrical power.Advantage is that no fossil fuels are consumed, no nuclearenergy is required, and no intense microwave beams fromspace are used.

     To those who find special pleasure in deriving equations and playing with math, here are some interesting areas:

     1) Derive the stream parameters in terms of stream density at the Earth terminal.  This would make it easy to then model KESTS of 5 thousandths of an inch diameter, or of 5 feet in diameter.

     2) Derive equations for weights to hang on thequasi-elliptical KESTS to either side of perigee, bendingthe stream so as to make necessary only one contact point onthe Earth surface.  Also consider cyclical adjusting of theweight position to compensate for the pull of the Moon andSun on the considerable mass of the stream.

     3) Derive equations for the magnetic field required toturn the stream around 180 degrees.  If the weight of thenecessary magnets and control equipment is less than theforce of thrust as the stream pushes against the reverser,the up it goes!  This would make possible differentconfigurations of KESTS, analogous to Rod Hyde's"Starbridge" concept, as well as make possible theupward-steering emplacement concept as in the Microelevatorconcept, a KESTS to GEO that can be raised and lowered atwill.  Other forms of reversers can be considered, evensimple compression springs, although this would limit thestream form to discontinuous packets of mass which wouldbounce off of the spring one at a time.

     4) Examine the possible use of an electrostatic fieldto hold the stream away from the atmosphere-excluding tubewalls.  If it is feasable, then consider having the tubechange to a mere skin, motionless to the surroundingatmosphere, sliding on the enclosed mass stream, andresisting the atmospheric pressure by transferring thatinward pressure to the electrostatic field to the radialincompressability of the mass stream.  This skin would havenegligible mass compared to the stream within it, yet wouldstill serve the function of blocking contact with theorbital-velocity stream with the Earth's atmosphere.

     5) Calculation of the system energy roughly would be1/2 MV squared, using the velocity at the Earth terminalexit, and the mass that of the entire orbital stream.  Theenergy would then be divided into part potential energy inthe stream as it rises losing velocity, and in losses fromsupporting the tube/skin, and losses due to moving thepayloads up and down the KESTS.

     6) Investigate effect on increasing velocity atentrance and exit on an extended GEO section of aquasi-elliptical KESTS, of tethered weights hanging towardEarth from that KESTS section.

     7) Investigate the stress on the web coupling thepositions of the up-stream tube with the adjacentdown-stream tube.  Intuitively this stress seems greatest atapogee; remember, one stream is in retrograde orbit.



"A New Dream for Our NASA: High Efficiency Transportation From the Moon Can make Moon/Null-g Products Low Priced on Earth", by J. E. D. Cline, Feb. 27, 1972.

"The Mooncable" A Profitable Space Transportation System" by J. E. D. Cline, March 25, 1972.

Correspondence from Francis Kemmett, Director of the Staff,NASA Inventions and Contributions Board, deferring consideration of "The  Mooncable: A Profitable Space Transportation System"; dated June 23, 1972. Article describing Mooncable Project, submitted to Carolyn Henson at the L-5 Society for publication in L-5 NEWS, Nov.26, 1978.  Rejected due to lack of prior formal presentation to AIAA.

"Intro to Mooncable" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #480,

"Mooncable Project 14", by J. E. D. Cline (J.E.D.CLINE1),

GEnie Spaceport Library file #530, Sept. 9, 1988.


GEnie Spaceport Library file #542, Sept 18, 1988.


"Skyhook!" by Hans Moravec, L-5 NEWS Aug 1978 pp1-3,12.

"The Rocket/Skyhook Combination" by F. Burke Carley and Hans

P. Moravec, L-5 NEWS March 1983 pp. 4-6.

"Space Inspiration", by J. E. D. Cline, Testimony given to

the National Commission on Space, Nov. 14, 1985, GEnie

Spaceport Library file #475, July 2, 1988.

"Conceptual Synthesis" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #634, Nov 20, 1988.


"Space Settlements: A Design Study", NASA SP-413, 1977

"The Launch Loop" by Keith H. Lofstrom, L-5 NEWS Aug. 1982,

pp. 8-9.

"The Starbridge", by Rod Hyde, talk given to Silicon Valley

L-5, (1984?)

"The Launch Loop" by Keith Lofstrom, ANALOG, pp.67-80.

"The Texas and Universe Railroad", by Earl Smith, L-5 NEWS,

Nov. 1985 pp.9-11.

"Power + Transportation", by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #553.

"Microelevator Vers 2", by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #581.

"Microelevator Import", by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #592.

"GEO'S UMBILICAL" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport Library

file #629.

"GEO HABITAT UMBILICAL 2" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #690, Dec. 29, 1988.

"HWY TO EARTH'S GEO RING" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #747, Feb.9, 1989.

"High Suburbia Commute" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #819.

"Passive Stable KESTS" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport

Library file #880.

"GEO TREEHOUSE" by J. E. D. Cline, GEnie Spaceport Library

file #881.

"LONGTRANS" by J. E. D. Cline, containing most of this talk,

GEnie Spaceport Library file #892.  890704.

Contact info:

GEnie "mail" address: J.E.D.CLINE1

For a copy of the page of illustrations referred to in the above text, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to theauthor:

J. E. D. "Jed" Cline
5632 Van Nuys Blvd. Ste 110
Van Nuys, CA 91401
Phone:  (818) 909-0143

     Copyright (C) 1989 by GEnie, SPACEPORT UNLIMITED, andJ. E. D. Cline.  Permission is granted for material to bedistributed without restriction, provided credit is given toGEnie, SPACEPORT, and J.E.D.Cline.

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Number: 1071  Name: CENTRISTATION III
Address: J.E.D.CLINE1                Date: 891217
Approximate # of bytes: 6300
Number of Accesses: 28  Library: 4

Squarely on the path to space colonization, this concept features a centrifugal ring of space station modules, each of which are built to serve as fuel tanks/upper stage during launch. A pair of flyback engine modules place them each in orbit. Financing done by a real-time TV series showing development, ground testing, launches, and technological spinoffs.

Keywords: toroid,habitat,booster,moon,Phobos,TV
[Background: At the time I generated this concept, there was occasional talk that the empty external fuel tanks that could be left in orbit after Space Shuttle launches, instead of sending them to re-entry destruction, and thus be available for building things in LEO. However, there seemed to be no support for that idea.

The awareness that the fuel tank reperesented a lot of wasted launch mass put into orbit, and indeed from any multi-stage space launch, put together with the thought that living space in orbit was highly desirable; existing space stations in LEO were referred to being like living in a cramped submarine. What happened to the classic wheel-shaped rotating space station, such as in the 1950's Chesley Bonstell paintings and cover magazines? Docking of spacecraft had been done in orbit many times, surely it could be largely automated and teleoperated where necessary. So a little shift in viewpoint produced the idea of building largely empty space habitat modules for dual use, designed as modules for use in a space station in orbit, as well as for use as its own fuel tank during launch. The wall-mounted equipment and supply storage in the walls of the module would need to be limited to that which could withstand the cryogenic temperatures of the fuel and be sealed away from contact with fuel if need be.

Since this modified kind of fuel tank itself thus became its own payload, high efficiency of launch into LEO looked likely. An unmanned engine tug module with enough airframe to link the three Space Shuttle Main Engines to push on the  fank being lifted as well as shaped as re-entry glider for return to the launch site after each launch and placement into orbit and teleoperated docking to the prior module up there, and use of an unpiloted airbreathing booster vehicle which also would return to the airfield after each launch, would make the entire launch and initial construction process do-able without manned presence in orbit, all making it much safer and with the inevitable occasional loss in a launch costing no lives, much cheaper and safer overall.  The classic wheel shaped space station could be built in LEO and only when the modules were all tup ther and docked in the spoked wheel shape, would people arrive to add cables encircling the structure to take the centrifugal load away from the linked docks, and to remove the internal bulkheads, before spin-up to 1-gee internal artificial gravity. The wheel could be built initially on the ground and have its systems including agriculture checked out to a large extent, before sequentially disconnecting each module and launching it as its own fuel tank to join the re-assembled wheel in LEO.

I wrote a series of files on the GEnie Spaceport library, the folowing is one of them. I started a roundtable topic on the subject, but it got some caustic remarks clearly from those involved with the ISS project to my references to a "cheap space station" and then the chat was filled with spam, which was not able to be cleared by me, and so the topic was essentially dead.

However, I did get to write the concept into print copy ready form (using shareware word processing software intended for much lesser purposes, but it could do the multiple columns as required by SSI's format at the time), and do a presentation of it at the SSI Space conference in Princeton in 1995; and so it was published in the conference proceedings. As it was the first such conference I had attended, I did not know how to do a presentation, so I made lots of goofs; but it got done.

After publication in 1995, I communicated with Rockwell which had built much of the Space Shuttle and was winding down its part of the business, attempting to gain support for my concept, since clearly they had the basic technology I used in the conceptual design for the wheel space station's construction, and they built the SSME's there at the Rockwell plant in Canoga Park which was near where I lived; surely it would bring them more billions in business. They requested I send a synopsis of my concept, which I wrote up and gave them via the internet; after they evaluated it they said that they were only a contractor building things for NASA they were paid to do, and had no interest in promoting space projects; I was not even invited to speak with them even though I could bicycle to their building complex. In that imperious rejection of my concepts and of myself in the process, I learned something about the space business for what it really was.

Yet I still had naive dreams of the fantasy of the humane, wise greatness of mankind; and so I continued to create space transportation and utilization concepts, write up, put on the intenrnet and even make more presentations at space conferences, attempting to repay and expand on part of the dream of space travel and construction which had been the major focus of my life since my earliest childhood.

The paper that was published in 1995 can be seen here.

A Science Fiction novel I wrote which included the construction and use of such a Space Station, in difficult circumstances, titled "Building Up" can be read here; the space station project started in chapter 4 ... the story starts with an anchored earth tether project, if any are interested in that too.

J E D Cline 20071223]

                       CENTRISTATION III

         J. E. D. Cline                     Dec.  17, 1989

A pair of unmanned engine/control system flyback modules boost a segment of a centrifugal space habitat toroid into LEO; during launch, space station segment is serving as the fuel tank.

This document outlines a conceptual design that is squarely onthe path to space colonization. A low-cost, safe centrifugal space station, with its launching system, that is worthy of the 1990's. See sketch. This very economical space station conceptual design perhaps can rekindle America's interest in the adventure of space, while providing a solid stepping- stone towards extending mankind's living resources beyond earthsurface. An adventurous, yet practical, Space Station Habitat.


--utilizes proven technologies.

--a low-cost, versatile, rotating centrifugal 1-gee large space station is created.

--a new class of launch vehicles is created, consisting of apair of winged flyback modules containing only engines and control systems ... the first flyback engine cluster module drops off prior to orbital insertion, and the second smaller single-engine-module returns after placement of the habitat-module in position in orbit; and an upper stage which is built both as a furnished space station habitat module, and also as the fuel tank during launch.

This Space Station Habitat design is a segmented toroid, for indefinitely long habitation, a precursor to an Island-One Stanford Torus space habitat. Each segment of the torus circumference is built to also function as the upper stage and fuel tank during launch.  The reuseable engine(s) and control system return as stubby winged re-entry vehicles back to the launch pad site after finishing putting a segment of the toroid into LEO. (A pair of refurbishable strap-on boosters, perhaps of AMROC LOX/SRB form, could be used instead of the second flyback engine module).

                     --- PURPOSE AND ADVANTAGES ---
1. Economical, safe space station construction is achieved by building the toroidal habitat on the ground in nearly finished form; by shrinking the space shuttle orbiter to mere pair of unmanned engine/control system flyback stubby winged shapes; making each toroidal space station habitat segment into a fuel tank temporarily for the launch as the upper stage; and automatic docking of the modules to form the toroidal ring of dozens to hundreds of segments. The ring is then spun-up and ready for occupancy. The inhabiting workers reach the free-fall vacuum industrial environment by climbing through spokes to the toroidal ring's hub.

2. Centristation demonstrates space colonization, and quickly in the coming decade. As we know, large-scale space colonization potentially can be an alternative to the crowding out of fellow lifeforms on the planet, consuming finite natural resourses rapidly, and littering our home planet with enormous heaps of garbage and refuse.

3. This project supplies the drama of space colonization started in the 1990's. Mankind needs daily drama in life just like food and shelter. Witness the lure of television shows and newspaper headlines. Life in space needs to encompass all the functions of being human, in addition to being interesting and sometimes adventurous.  Life there needs to be shown to be capable of being very comfortable, safe, and supporting the mating and family-raising activities that humans normally need.  The drama of achieving these in the vast room and resources of space can excite the imagination of humanity, supplying a new confidence in the future of humanity and of planet earth's ecology. And Centristation could be modified for relocation at Mars' moon Phobos, or be boosted to GEO when KESTS  (Kinetic-Energy-Supported Transportation Structures) are operational. (An alternative way of financing this project thus might be to present it as an ongoing TV series, real-time, from inception to completion, showing also the spinnoffs developed by the Centristation project, such as recycling, agriculture, and group lifestyles in action.)

4. The rotating ring, or toroid shape, has long been in American awareness as the design for a permanently occupied space station, because it provides the artificial gravity needed for normal bodily function.  The centrifugal force simulated gravity is assumed to be able to provide the means to overcome the unhealthy effects of weightlessness, such as immune system disfunction, bone loss and muscular atrophy; and allow a human being to have normal bodily functions such as bathroom activities. And people need the companionship of other lifeforms: the animals, fish and plants also need "gravity."

5. While it is a testing ground for the Stanford Torus Island One much larger be built from lunar raw materials later..., it will test those self-sufficient agricultural processes and family lifestyles in the relatively nearby LEO.The habitat additionally serves as home to workers for adjacent free-fall, hard-vacuum manufacturing facilities, and is comfortable waystation for early manned missions back to the moon and perhaps beyond to Mars' moon Phobos.

(For a free drawing of this concept, send a SASE stamped, self-addressed envelope, to:

 JED Cline
 5632 Van Nuys Blvd. Ste. 110
 Van Nuys, CA 91401

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Number: 4371  Name: 5TOGO
Address: J.E.D.CLINE1                Date: 940325
Approximate # of bytes: 10443
Number of Accesses: 6  Library: 3


An overview of one person's concept of a space program leading quickly to large-scale space colonization. Describes general purpose: better survival of civilization and Earth's ecosystem. Describes inexpensive launch system for research artificail gravity small space settlements. Describes "kinetic structure" concept, and the use of kinetic structures to build bridges from earth surface to earth synchronous orbit. Describes construction of a ring of space settlements in the Clark belt.

Keywords: KESTS,settlements,bridges,civilization
 .                          5TOGO

 .                    By J. E. D. Cline          940325


It is not necessarily true that there is no hope that the averageperson living now will be able to live in a comfortable space colony.

It is not necessarily so that massive space colonization in ourtime cannot remove the population/resource pressure on the Earthsurface ecosystem in time to provide ecological balance and geneticdiversity.

 .                        EMIGRATION PATH

Transportation is one of the key items for these possibilities. Theremust be ways to transport people and materials adequate to the task.Transportation of hundreds of millions of people and billions ofpounds of materials. Transportation sufficiently economical, rapid andsafe.

What if it were possible to build and operate transportation bridgesfrom Earth surface to space, particularly to the orbit which isstationary relative to the equator, known as the Clark Belt or GEO?End points of such a bridge would be stationary relative to eachother. Step off of the bridge at the top terminal onto appearantlystationary flooring. The floor of a building that could be very, verybig.

Consider the possibility of an unusual way to support the structure ofbridges. Instead of building with tensile and compressive members,which have limits in their strength of materials and thus limits totheir size, consider the possibility of using stored energy within thebridge structure to support it.

Consider the immense kinetic energy of a massive pair of orbitalvelocity mass streams, flowing in vacuum, within channels along thelength of such a bridge structure. The kinetic energy of those massstreams are electromechanically coupled to the structure of thebridge, providing support for the bridge structure and its live loads,and supplying energy to move those live loads along its length fromthe Earth's surface up to the Clark Belt and back down to the Earth'ssurface, in a parallel pair of endless loops. Most of the kineticenergy would stay in the loops instead of being used each time aroundthe loop.

Such a transportation system would use electrical energy instead of chemical energy.

An early form of a proposed kinetic energy supported Earth to spacestructure, proposed by Rod Hyde, would have lifted the mass of everyhuman being on this planet into near space using only the electricalpower equal to that consumed by the city of Los Angeles over a periodof two weeks. This was a vertical tower structure toward low earthorbit altitudes.

 .                   WHAT IF IT WERE POSSIBLE TO...

What if it were possible in the long term to support such bridges from the electricity generated by solar satellite power technology?

What if it were possible to build a 10,000-person condo-like city in this Clark Belt, from materials brought up from Earth surface on such a stored-energy bridge?

What if it were possible to build one and a half million of these 10,000-person condomium cities around the Earth in the Clark belt, mostly made of materials brought from the Moon?

What if this were just the beginning of a spacious city around the Earth above the equator; a Earth restored to a garden planet of the vast potential of great harmonious genetic diversity?

 .                      WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?

Is lethargy our only enemy, the only thing blocking humanity from being born into the spatial resources around the planet, born to be a new partner for Mother Earth?

What is the problem? It is not necessarily so that space colonization cannot solve the resource population pressures in our time. Turn on your computer; start bending metal. Hey, let's build and let's go for the great life in the Big City built like we want it!

                     CAN WE GET THERE FROM HERE?

Parts of the path to space are made already. We have the space shuttlein operation from ground to low earth orbit and back. We have theyears-orbiting Soyuz space station example. We have the Apollofootprints on the Moon. We have robot spacecraft checking outasteroids and our other planets. We know we can live out there, andout there are energy and materials resources abundantly awaiting life.

A progression from the present-day space scenario might be:

Creation of flyback engine/control type wet launch module vehicle using existing proven Space Shuttle technology, to specifically lift pre-assembled sections of a toroidal space station design.

Use these unmanned wet-launched prefitted modules to build . artificial gravity space stations made of circles of these linked modules to prove out the hypothesis that earth surface gravity and atmospheric pressure in a rotating toroid can prpovide functional stability in a group living situation which includes other life forms in a harmonious synthesis.

The bulk of the physical structure to be built in the Clark Belt around the Earth would need to be built out of space resources. The Moon is handy and has plentiful resources of such materials as aluminum and titanium. This material needs to be moved from the Moon's surface to the vecinity of the Clark Belt efficiently and . with a minimum of pre-industrialization of the Moon. Investigate forms of materials pumps utilizing the greater depth of potential energy into earth's gravity well, to lift materials up out of the Moon's gravity well. One way stores the energy as angular momentum: an Earth-Moon two-body orbiting Skyhook one-way materials pump, which picks up packaged payloads from the far side of the Moon on a tether, paylooad and spacecraft tethered whirling together as they . continue around the Moon and into Earth's gravity well, the spacecraft regaining its energy through appropriately timed release of the payload from a lengthened tether deep into Earth's gravity well. Hans Moravec created the original spinning skyhook concept.

Creation of stored-energy bridges on Earth surface to develop the technology into a high reliability system, while also providing new modes of long range transportation of large amounts of fuels, water . and other resources. Development of emplacement techniques. Keith . Loftstrom conceptualized related structures of "launch loops."

Fabrication of the first stored energy bridges to the Clark Belt create the links to the new land: the Clark Belt. Earle Smith conceptualized a form of kinetic-energy supported bridge from Earth surface to the Clark Belt.

First Clark Belt "Island One" type 10,000-person space settlement built from Earth materials, brought up on a stored-energy bridge. This develops the functional structural design with components built comparatively easily on the Earth's surface. Outfitting the . interior of the space settlement to include as many earth-normal features as possible. Tests out agricultural systems, condominium . homes on the interior slopes, and creative stable harmonious social system...and millions of the other necessary things need to be tested out there too. This general type structure can be found in . detail in NASA SP-413 and "The High Frontier".

Long term electrical power to support the kinetic energy bridges needs to come from space resources instead of relying on Earth resources, so development of solar power electromechanical thrusters supporting these bridges needs to be done. They would use solar energy converted into electrical energy to accelerate the downward direction of the kinetic mass stream so as to replenish the energy consumed by the support of the bridge structure and for moving payloads along it. The thrust of that acceleration would be . against the weight of the power converter, being located along the . bridge at points below synchronous orbit.

Lunar industrialization, with a stored energy bridge transportation . system to replace the orbiting Skyhook.

Massive transportation of lunar materials to the Clark Belt using lunar stored energy bridges for the major part of the trip.

Robotic construction of more Island One space settlements in GEO, the Clark Belt. These 10,000-person-each wheel-like space settlements would be linked together like the chairs on a ferris wheel, eventually all the way around the planet in the Clark Belt. Robotic construction builds the repetitive toroidal shell structures, then would be spun up to earth normal interior gravity, pressurized from Earth atmosphere components, then the interior outfitted in the way things are built on earth surface by people and machines.

Great living for humanity in the Clark Belt City. It is essential that the functionality and appearance of the interior of these space settlements resemble normal Earth environments as much as possible, not only to maintain our long term humanity there, but also to enable ecological balance with current Earth surface ecosystem lifeforms.

Restoration of Earth surface ecological balance by City dwellers would become vacation volunteer activity, a periodic pilgramage back to Earth surface to heal the wounds we have inadvertently already given to Mother Earth.

Humanity looks inward...and outward. Peaceful co-existence and capacity for creative solutions to the endless new requirements as the City ecosystem evolves and harmonizes, will require the dwellers to understand themselves and their relationships with that within which they live. The inherent deep subconscious urges toward tribalistic territoriality and win-lose upsmanship need by understood and updated by each City dweller to avoid default disintegration processes of the mamallian sub-mind. Thus prepared, they can then harmoniously look outward toward the great resources of our solar system, which yet await life. 2a ...!

 Some GEnie Spaceport Library References:
 2931 Centristation IV
  927 Longtrans2
 2466 Kinetic Structures III
  747 Hwy to Earth GEO Ring

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